How To Choose an Antenna Antenna Cables & adapters to better position your antenna Antenna Mounts Bulkhead Nut washer o-ring RP-SMA Weatherproof antennas LTE Antennas, 4G Antennas, GSM Antennas Dual Band Antennas

Data Alliance Antennas Signal Loss in Antenna Cables.  LMR-100, LMR-200, LMR-400

Tech Support - Wireless Frequencies

    RFID Wireless Technologies, Frequencies and Applications in IoT

    Wireless Technologies used in RFID applications

    RFID transmits across three main frequency ranges on the electromagnetic spectrum.

    • The low frequency band of 120-150kHz is used for basic identification with a range of up to 10 centimeters (four inches).
    • High frequency RFID bands operate at 13.5 MHz, an ISM band, with applications in smart cards and memory cards. Transmission ranges are up to 1 meter.
    • Ultra high frequency RFID transmission supports short range devices with a frequency of 433MHz and ranges of up to 100m
    • Microwave band RFID transmits at frequencies from 865MHz to 10GHz on a variety of ISM bands with ranges of 1 to 200m. At these frequencies RFID operates according to a number of RF standards and protocols such as Bluetooth and 802.11.

    About RFID (Radio Frequency identification)  

    RFID uses radio frequency data transfer for the automatic identification and tracking of RFID-tagged items. This technology has undergone considerable evolution since its development  during WWII as a means of identifying aircraft. This wireless auto-ID technology has a wide variety of applications centering on electronically stored information being either transmitted (by active tags) or received (by passive tags). RFID can operate outside of line of sight, or be embedded with tags able to be read within a range of a few inches or centimeters, up to hundreds of meters.

    RFID is also classified as an Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) technology where uniquely identified objects can have data transferred to upstream databases with almost no human intervention.

    A simple RFID system will comprise of an RFID tag (also known as a transponder) reader (also known as a transciever) and an antenna. Tags typically contain an integrated circuit and antenna in a robust casing, which transmit to the reader. Smart labels contain a printed or etched antenna and minimal circuitry containing the information to be transmitted. The reader communicates with both the tags and an upstream application or data processing system of some kind.

    RFID Readers

    RFID transceivers can both receive information from the tag and transmit this information onwards to application software. The reader may also be able to communicate bi-directionally, transferring information from the application to the tag. It is usually comprised of a radio frequency interface (RFI) module and control unit.

    RFID and IoT

    RFID applications have typically focused on asset identification, tracking and control. However next-generation RFID applications are being used in  Internet of Things (IoT) deployments, taking advantage of the broad frequency ranges in which RFID operates, particularly the UHF and microwave frequencies.

    RFID is able to be utilized as a wireless communication protocol which underpins the identification of objects in IoT. These objects can can be represented in an internet-like structure, monitored and inventoried by computers.

    There is currently a convergence of RFID and IoT technologies with developments of internet-based, autonomously operating systems of data capture, transfer and feedback. RFID is now being combined with other information processing equipment such as GPS, GPRS or WSN to network inventorized objects and make them ‘smart’.

    As RFID is primarily concerned with the identification of objects, combining this technology with sensors, actuators and upstream internet-based data processing produces an IoT system where items can be monitored and controlled globally in real-time.

    Challenges of using RFID in IoT applications

    RFID provides great potential for innovative, integrated, IoT based applications, however some limitations and challenges currently exist.

    • Interference RFID communication is simple insecure in its most basic form and susceptible to EM interference and interception.
    • Collisions can also occur between simultaneous transmissions as RFID readers and tags usually operate using the same wireless channels. This causes increased energy and bandwidth consumption and delays in identification.
    • Security and privacy Tags require effective means of security against eavesdropping or hacking. Without access control mechanisms in place RFID systems can be accessed by unauthorized persons or software and potentially compromise upstream IoT networking.
    • Costs RFID tags are expensive and will require further development and engineering to provide reliable identification and integrate IoT sensor and actuator technologies.
    • Integration RFID requires modification for effective integration into existing IoT systems

    Though RFID is an established and widely used wireless technology, it requires more robust access control, authentication and anti-collision protocols as well as refinement to tag designs and reductions in unitary costs to realize its potential.

    RFID Antennas

    Antennas play a critical role in the operation of RFID systems. They are designed to operate within the designated carrier frequencies of their specific RFID system. They propagate RF energy both vertically and horizontally to create an electromagnetic (EM) field that can be identified along with the transmitted data. The bigger the EM field wave coverage patterns generated by these antennas the lower the overall signal strength.

    Passive RFID tags have a flat antenna coil which is activated by supplying an energizing RF signal. Induced antenna coils are typically tag antennas therefore do not require a power source and only communicate their data when energised. The greater the net area of the printed, etched or embedded antenna coil, the further its read range and ability to absorb RF energy.

    A wide range of RFID antennas are available and designed to partner with variety of RFID systems. Types include UHF antennas, polarized antennas and patch antennas.

    Posted by

    NarrowBand-Internet of Things (NB-IoT)

    NB-IoT is a wireless IoT protocol using  Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technology, and that uses licensed frequency bands.  The range is up to three miles under normal/typical conditions.  Up to ten miles is possible under ideal conditions:  With base station on a tower and perfect line of site. Based on the LTE standard, NB-IoT is utilized in cellular devices and services [...]

    Read More »

    If Antenna frequency band exceeds needed range: Use Filter on system board to reduce excess band

    Example: You need only 860-960 MHz GSM band but the antenna covers 800-960MHz: One customer told us that using an antenna that includes 824-960 band allows too much interference, that comes from the low end of that band 824-860MHz.Our recommended solution is to add a filter in your system board (or AP [...]

    Read More »

    LoRa: Long Range Wireless for Internet of Things (IOT): Frequency Bands, Antennas

    LoRa (short for long-range) wireless technology for Internet of Things (IoT) and M2M (machine to machine) applications:   Incredibly low power usage, long range and secure data transmission. Data Alliance's wide range of LoRa antennas: 915GHz in the US and 868 MHz in EuropeLoRa antennas, also called Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) antennas, use advanced signal processing to achieve long-range [...]

    Read More »

    5G, 4G & 3G Standards: LTE, GSM CDMA, ISM, WCDMA, HSPA

    LTE (4G), GSM (3G & 2G), CDMA (3G & 2G), 5G and ISM. The fundamental differences between these four modern technologies is the way they transmit and receive information.LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a 4G communication standard designed to be 10x faster than standard 3G. the technology provides IP-Based communication of voice and multimedia and [...]

    Read More »

    ISM Band of Frequencies and Allocation

    ISM means Industrial, Scientific and Medical frequency band. This is a band of radio and microwave frequencies clustered around 2.4GHz, reserved and designated for industrial, scientific and medical equipment that use RF. Industrial equipment like MRI machines, testing equipment, and some radio telescopes use this ISM band of frequencies. Smaller consumer devices such as microwave [...]

    Read More »

    Legal & Illegal Frequencies & Channels In the United States

    LEGAL & ILLEGAL FREQUENCIES IN THE BAND 4.9GHz to 5.825 (United States only) Channel Frequency United States (MHz) 40/20 MHz 183 4915 ILLEGAL 184 4920 ILLEGAL 185 4925 ILLEGAL 187 4935 ILLEGAL 188 4940 ILLEGAL 189 4945 ILLEGAL 192 4960 ILLEGAL 196 4980 ILLEGAL 7 5035 ILLEGAL 8 5040 ILLEGAL 9 5045 ILLEGAL 11 5055 ILLEGAL 12 5060 ILLEGAL 16 5080 ILLEGAL 34 5170 ILLEGAL 36 5180 LEGAL 38 5190 ILLEGAL 40 5200 LEGAL 42 5210 ILLEGAL 44 5220 LEGAL 46 5230 ILLEGAL 48 5240 LEGAL 52 5260 LEGAL 56 5280 LEGAL 60 5300 LEGAL 64 5320 LEGAL 100 5500 LEGAL 104 5520 LEGAL 108 5540 LEGAL 112 LEGAL 116 5580 LEGAL 120 5600 ILLEGAL 124 5620 ILLEGAL 128 5640 ILLEGAL 132 5660 ILLEGAL 136 5680 LEGAL 140 5700 LEGAL 149 5745 LEGAL 153 5765 LEGAL 157 5785 LEGAL 161 5805 LEGAL 165 5825 LEGAL 2.4GHz (802.11n/g/b) is legal in all countries, but note the following: Channels 1-12 are legal in the United States Channels 13-14 are illegal to use in the United States 3.65ghz works on a registration system  The application fee for [...]

    Read More »

    IoT (Internet of Things) Wireless Protocols and Their Frequency Bands

    IoT (Internet of Things) is a growing network of objects, devices and machines each able to communicate with the other using a wireless network to access the Internet.  IoT devices have a flexible range of both wired and wireless connectivity options.  IoT protocols mostly use ISM band frequencies of 4.33GHz, 915MHz, 2.4GHz. 5GHz.Short-range IoT wireless devices mostly [...]

    Read More »

    WiFi Frequency Bands: Uses, advantages & disadvantages of 2.4GHz, 5GHz, 900MHz Ranges

    2.4GHz:  Older Consumer WiFi products (before 802.11ac) are 2.4GHzFar better at traveling through walls than 5GHzDisadvantage is that it is typically more cluttered with signals than 5GHz 5.2 to 5.8GHz 5GHz band is used for private links & point to point links to avoid interference in 2.4GHz band Typically much less cluttered with signal-traffic Uses spacial multiplexing to eliminate "blind spots" in [...]

    Read More »

    WiFi Network Standards Compared: 802.11ac, 802.11n, 802.11g, 802.11b and 802.11a

    802.11ac is the latest WiFi standard and uses the 5.8GHz frequency band.  Older standards 802.11n and earlier used 2.4GHz as its frequency band. Advantages of 802.11ac over 802.11n802.11AC is the latest standard and has six major improvements over 802.11n that result in much higher throughputs: Uses 5GHz band only, which is much less congested than 2.4GHz:  802.11n runs on the heavily [...]

    Read More »

    Antennas by connector type Frequency Bands of WiFi, Bluetooth, 5G, 4G, 3G, LTE, GSM, ISM, CDMA

    RP-SMA cables and adapters SMA antenna cables and adapters N-type cables and adapters U.FL cables MHF4 Cables MMCX cables
    Dimensions / Measurements of RP-SMA connectors Signal-loss (attenuation) in LMR-100 and LMR-200 cables RP-SMA antenna BNC cables RP-TNC cables and adapters Roof Mounts for Antennas
    LTE Antennas, GSM Antennas, 4G Antennas Through-hole antenna mounts Adhesive Mount Antennas Tripod Antenna Mounts Top Tips for Long Range WiFi