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Tech Support - Wireless Frequencies

    LoRa: Long Range Wireless for Internet of Things (IOT): Frequency Bands Etc.

    LoRa is a wireless technology with incredibly low power usage, long range and secure data transmission for IoT and M2M applications. It is made on the chirp spread spectrum modulation technology which makes it efficient for long-range communication.   LoRa is short for long-range. 

    LoRa Frequency Bands
    LoRa uses unlicensed frequency bands that are to be found worldwide. However, the following are the most common bands/ frequencies for LoRa:

    Typical applications
    LoRa has found use in a wide range of applications though it is most preferred in Internet of Things devices that:
    1. Have no access to electricity
    2. Do not require instant feedback
    3. Are too many to get a costly cellular subscription for
    4. Are inconvenient or impossible to physical access

    Given its long range and low power capacities endpoint devices can be deployed in all manner of outdoor and indoor facilities. Applications include devices in smart cities, smart logistics, supply chain, smart homes, smart metering, and smart agriculture.

    LoRa achieves better coverage for its wireless devise and modules by using frequencies lower than those in the 5.8 or 2.4 GHz ISM bands. While it uses sub 1 GHz bands a lot of the time, LoRa tends to be frequency agnostic and will work fine on most frequencies without needing significant modification.

    How does LoRa compare to Bluetooth and ZigBee?
    LoRa wireless networking biggest advantage over Zigbee and Bluetooth is its incredibly low power usage and long range capacities. Zigbee and Bluetooth don’t come close to LoRa especially when it comes to battery usage. LoRa devices can be equipped with a battery which will last for up to ten years as compared to the average of just one year for Zigbee and Bluetooth devices. LoRa can communicate with a standard gateway wirelessly for a distance of up to 15km as compared to a few feet for its competitors.

    How does LoRa compare to using cellular data systems?
    Most cellular data systems can match the coverage and range of LoRa, though they tend to be more expensive to maintain as compared to LoRa systems. The reason for this is that LoRa demands less from the underlying network, given its significantly lower use of bandwidth. This makes cellular network subscriptions many times more expensive than LoRa.

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    If Antenna frequency band exceeds needed range: Use Filter on system board to reduce excess band

    Example: You need only 860-960 MHz GSM band but the antenna covers 800-960MHz: One customer told us that using an antenna that includes 824-960 band allows too much interference, that comes from the low end of that band 824-860MHz.Our recommended solution is to add a filter in your system board (or AP [...]

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    5G, 4G & 3G Standards: LTE, GSM CDMA, ISM, WCDMA, HSPA

    LTE (4G), GSM (3G & 2G), CDMA (3G & 2G), 5G and ISM. The fundamental differences between these four modern technologies is the way they transmit and receive information.LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a 4G communication standard designed to be 10x faster than standard 3G. the technology provides IP-Based communication of voice and multimedia and [...]

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    ISM Band of Frequencies and Allocation

    ISM means Industrial, Scientific and Medical frequency band. This is a band of radio and microwave frequencies clustered around 2.4GHz, reserved and designated for industrial, scientific and medical equipment that use RF. Industrial equipment like MRI machines, testing equipment, and some radio telescopes use this ISM band of frequencies. Smaller consumer devices such as microwave [...]

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    Legal & Illegal Frequencies & Channels In the United States

    LEGAL & ILLEGAL FREQUENCIES IN THE BAND 4.9GHz to 5.825 (United States only) Channel Frequency United States (MHz) 40/20 MHz 183 4915 ILLEGAL 184 4920 ILLEGAL 185 4925 ILLEGAL 187 4935 ILLEGAL 188 4940 ILLEGAL 189 4945 ILLEGAL 192 4960 ILLEGAL 196 4980 ILLEGAL 7 5035 ILLEGAL 8 5040 ILLEGAL 9 5045 ILLEGAL 11 5055 ILLEGAL 12 5060 ILLEGAL 16 5080 ILLEGAL 34 5170 ILLEGAL 36 5180 LEGAL 38 5190 ILLEGAL 40 5200 LEGAL 42 5210 ILLEGAL 44 5220 LEGAL 46 5230 ILLEGAL 48 5240 LEGAL 52 5260 LEGAL 56 5280 LEGAL 60 5300 LEGAL 64 5320 LEGAL 100 5500 LEGAL 104 5520 LEGAL 108 5540 LEGAL 112 LEGAL 116 5580 LEGAL 120 5600 ILLEGAL 124 5620 ILLEGAL 128 5640 ILLEGAL 132 5660 ILLEGAL 136 5680 LEGAL 140 5700 LEGAL 149 5745 LEGAL 153 5765 LEGAL 157 5785 LEGAL 161 5805 LEGAL 165 5825 LEGAL 2.4GHz (802.11n/g/b) is legal in all countries, but note the following: Channels 1-12 are legal in the United States Channels 13-14 are illegal to use in the United States 3.65ghz works on a registration system  The application fee for [...]

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    Frequency bands of IoT (Internet of Things)

    IoT (Internet of Things) is a network of physical devices each able to communicate with the other using the existing internet channel. The devices “Things” are common everyday devices and equipment, including smartphones, wearables, vehicles, and instruments. Each device in the network is uniquely identifiable and able to exchange data with over devices over IP. Devices [...]

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    WiFi Frequency Bands: Uses, advantages & disadvantages of 2.4GHz, 5GHz, 900MHz Ranges

    2.4GHz:  Older Consumer WiFi products (before 802.11ac) are 2.4GHzFar better at traveling through walls than 5GHzDisadvantage is that it is typically more cluttered with signals than 5GHz 5.2 to 5.8GHz 5GHz band is used for private links & point to point links to avoid interference in 2.4GHz band Typically much less cluttered with signal-traffic Uses spacial multiplexing to eliminate "blind spots" in [...]

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    WiFi Network Standards Compared: 802.11ac, 802.11n, 802.11g, 802.11b and 802.11a

    802.11ac is the latest WiFi standard and uses the 5.8GHz frequency band.  Older standards 802.11n and earlier used 2.4GHz as its frequency band. Advantages of 802.11ac over 802.11n802.11AC is the latest standard and has six major improvements over 802.11n that result in much higher throughputs: Uses 5GHz band only, which is much less congested than 2.4GHz:  802.11n runs on the heavily [...]

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    802.11B for Long-Distance Links on Older Gear

    If you are trying to reach a distant or weak network signal for internet access:802.11b will provide better range/distance than 802.11g, and802.11b provides plenty of bandwidth for internet access at broadband-speedFor longer-distance links, your wireless card/USB adapter will automatically select a lower-bandwidth data-rate: Therefore will automatically select 802.11b modeMany people assume that 802.11g mode [...]

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    Antennas by connector type Frequency Bands of WiFi, Bluetooth, 5G, 4G, 3G, LTE, GSM, ISM, CDMA

    Top Tips for Long Range WiFi LTE Antennas, GSM Antennas, 4G Antennas Through-hole antenna mounts Adhesive Mount Antennas Tripod Antenna Mounts
    RP-SMA cables and adapters SMA antenna cables and adapters N-type cables and adapters U.FL cables MHF4 Cables MMCX cables
    Dimensions / Measurements of RP-SMA connectors Signal-loss (attenuation) in LMR-100 and LMR-200 cables RP-SMA antenna BNC cables RP-TNC cables and adapters Roof Mounts for Antennas