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Tech Support

    Antenna Beamwidth

    Beamwidth is the angle from which the majority of the antenna’s power, as illustrated on the radiation pattern's main lobe, radiates. It may be measured in the horizontal or vertical planes and is the distance between two points where the power is less than half of the maximum.

    Beamwidth varies with the physical and electronic characteristics of an antenna such as type, design, orientation and frequency. It may be horizontal (azimuth) or vertical (elevation) or in the case of omnidirectional antennas around 360 degrees horizontally. Directional antennas focus the RF energy in a specific direction, with the bandwidth inversely proportional to the level gain or directivity of the antenna.

    Beamwidth is a useful analytical parameter for a number of practical applications including:

    • Planning antenna coverage in a given area.
    • Determining whether neighboring antennas will interfere with each other.
    • Assisting in improving the performance of communication links.
    • Devising the deployment of networks within more than one environment (e.g. indoor and outdoor).
    • Development of network mobility.

    The relationship between antenna gain and beamwidth can assist in determining the resolution of an antenna beam and its directivity.

    Within beamwidth there are two other key parameters:

    Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) is an angle between the half power points of the main lobe as measured at -3dB. This is considered to be the part of the antenna output that has maximum consistency and utility and is closely related to the gain of the antenna. If planning an antenna array, the HPBW will be the point where neighbouring sectors cross over.

    First Null Beam Width (FNBW) FNBW is the degree of angular separation from the main beam. It is found between the null points of the main lobe of the antenna's radiation pattern. This measurement can assist in assessment of antenna interference.

    What is the relationship between beamwidth and gain?

    When the direction and radiation distance of an antenna are known, beamwidth can also be used to determine the signal strength expected for the antenna. Gain is concerned with both the power efficiency and directivity of the antenna and therefore is also closely related to beamwidth. Beamwidth and gain have an inverse relationship. Decreasing the antenna bandwidth will increase the gain. This is because by reducing the beamwidth, power transfer will be increased in a particular direction.

    Signal to noise ratio and beamwidth.

    As beamwidth relates closely to directivity and gain, alteration of beamwidth provides proportional changes in both these parameters. In addition, the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the ratio of signal strength to unwanted interference (noice), also changes accordingly. If beamwidth is narrowed, gain and directivity will increase. This also increases the signal to noise ratio (SNR) favorably. For this reason narrow beamwidth antennas are a prudent choice for long distance transmissions.

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    Antenna Polarization: Vertical, Linear: Key Factor in Selection of an Antenna

    Polarity is a key electrical characteristic to be considered when selecting an antenna. Like-matched antennas in an RF set-up will have optimal power or signal transfer in point-to-point applications.  Polarity is as important as gain, radiation pattern and VSWR. In transmitting antennas, the polarization of an antenna is the direction of the electromagnetic fields produced by the antenna as energy radiates [...]

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    FPV (First Person View) Antennas for Drones

    FPV (First Person View), are remotely controlled vehicles from a pilot’s or drivers point of view. They include unmanned aerial vehicles such as drones and ground vehicles such as RC cars and land moving equipment. FPV video feed and control signals are transmitted across various frequency bands depending on desired range and application. Most FPV [...]

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    Nickel and Gold-Plated Brass Compared as Platings for Antenna Cable Connectors and Adapters

    Rust Proofing and Corrosion-Protection: Best Options Among Nickel, Gold-Plated Brass & Brass Alloys:For outdoor applications, nickel-plated brass is the best option. Nickel-plated brass one is much durable than gold-plated for weatherproofing of antenna cable connectors.Nickel-plated brass is the most corrosion-resistant option:  Nickel-plating will last at least 5 years. Normally 5-10 years - depends on application field. Data [...]

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    RFID Wireless Technologies, Frequencies and Applications in IoT

    Wireless Technologies used in RFID applications RFID transmits across three main frequency ranges on the electromagnetic spectrum. The low frequency band of 120-150kHz is used for basic identification with a range of up to 10 centimeters (four inches). High frequency RFID bands operate at 13.5 MHz, an ISM band, with applications in smart cards and memory cards. Transmission [...]

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    LTE-M - Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) for IoT

    LTE-M also known as Long Term Evolution for Machines, LTE-Machine Type Communication or eMTC is a form of Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) developed by 3GPP to support a variety of IoT technologies. It enables these devices to connect readily and directly to 4G networks without a gateway or the requirement of batteries. LTE-M is also favored because it [...]

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    RoHS 3 Compliance of Coaxial Antenna Cables , Connectors and Adapters

    All of Data Alliance’s antenna cables and adapters for antenna cables, are compliant with RoHS 3 and REACH.In all of our antenna cable products, and all of our antennas that are stated as RoHS compliant: Lead content is less than 0.1% by weight.  All restricted materials are less than 0.1% content by weight.  The full list of restricted materials [...]

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    ​M2M Communication & mMTC - Massive Machine-Type Communication

    Machine to Machine Communication, also abbreviated as M2M is a modality of communication between machines or devices without any human interaction or control. These devices can speak’ to one another using either wired or wireless data transmission, with wireless M2M in particular becoming a growing field with numerous Internet of Things (IoT) applications being added.Wireless networking standards in M2M.  [...]

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    NarrowBand-Internet of Things (NB-IoT)

    NB-IoT is a wireless IoT protocol using  Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technology, and that uses licensed frequency bands.  The range is up to three miles under normal/typical conditions.  Up to ten miles is possible under ideal conditions:  With base station on a tower and perfect line of site. Based on the LTE standard, NB-IoT is utilized in cellular devices and services [...]

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    Front to Back Ratio: Directivity of Antenna to Reduce Interference

    Front to Back Ratio Applies to Directional Antennas OnlyFront to Back Ratio Defined and Explained:  The measure of directivity of a directional antenna:  It is dependent on the directivity of the antenna with the measurements taken on a 180 degree axis and measured in decibels (dB).A ratio of the magnitude of directional radiation in an antenna, directed [...]

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