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Data Alliance Antennas Signal Loss in Antenna Cables.  LMR-100, LMR-200, LMR-400

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    Antenna Radiation Patterns: H-Plane, E-Plane, XY XZ YZ Planes

    This article explains radiation patterns, detailing how polarization (linear and vertical) relates to the E-Plane and H-Plane, and how XY, XZ and YZ planes correspond to E-Plane and H-Plane.

    A radiation pattern, or antenna pattern is a graphical representation of how a particular antenna radiates or receives energy. It is unique to an individual antenna and is made up by plotting its far field (normally radiating) radiation as charted coordinates.

    You can use an antenna pattern to aid visualization of how a proposed antenna will radiate or receive electromagnetic energy when mounted. Antenna patterns are measured plotted in the orientation antenna will be used in or mounted. This is essential for planning deployment of antennas for wireless networking.

    How 3D Radiation Patterns Are Represented in Two Dimensions

    Antennas radiate or receive energy in all directions, making their patterns 3 dimensional. However, it is more convenient to render the pattern on separate horizontal and vertical planes known as principal plane patterns. These are essentially slices through the three dimensional field generated by the antenna.

    The principal plane patterns

    • The azimuth plane is also known as the XY plane and refers to the horizontal plane.
    • The elevation plane is also known as the vertical or YZ plane.
    • The elevation plane is oriented at right angles to the azimuth plane.
    • A third perpendicular plane, the XZ plane also intersects the origin and provides data points.

    These intersecting planes create complementary polar plots that provide a reliable representation of the antenna's performance. For accuracy, these plots should be derived from a true cross-section of a 3D antenna pattern, rather than plotting data in each plane.

    Linearly Polarized Antennas

    Polarization relates to the orientation of the electrical and magnetic components of electromagnetic waves as they are generated from a radiating antenna. In the case of linearly polarized antennas, these antennas limit the radiation of electromagnetic waves to a single linear direction. In this case, the electrical field is always in a single plane.

    Depending on their orientation to the earth, antennas with linear polarization may have:

    • Vertical polarization is where the electrical component of the EM wave shifts in the vertical plane.
    • Horizontal polarization is where this movement is in the horizontal plane.

    When interpreting the radiation patterns of linearly polarized antennas, the following planes are used.

    E-PLANE (electric field plane)

    E-Plane is always the plane that contains the electric component of the EM radiation and the direction of maximum radiation. The E plane will dictate whether the linear polarization is horizontal or vertical

    • VERTICALLY POLARIZED antennas have an E plane that relates to the VERTICAL / YZ / ELEVATION plane.  
    • HORIZONTALLY POLARIZED antennas have an E plane that coincides with the HORIZONTAL / XY plane.  

    AZIMUTH PLANE:  the Magnetic H plane (or H aperture)

    This plane relates to the magnetic portion of the EM energy generated by a linearly polarized antenna. It will always be perpendicular to the E plane.

    • An antenna with vertical polarization will have an H plane that coincides with the azimuth plane
    • An antenna with horizontal polarization has an H plane that will coincide with the elevation plane.

    Radiation patterns that are labeled XY, XZ, YZ:  The following applies whether the antenna is Vertically Polarized or Linearly Polarized:

    • The XY radiation patterns are horizontal plane radiation patterns as they will be perpendicular to the E plane (and coincide with the H-plane of a vertically polarized antenna).
    • E plane will coincide with the vertical or YZ plane. The YZ patterns are vertical plane radiation patterns.

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    1.37mm Low-Loss Cable for U.FL Connectors

    1.37mm coaxial cable has similar signal loss as RG174 and RG178, but is thinner and more flexible:  It has same size conductor as RG178 cable, but smaller overall diameter.   It's flexibility helps the U.FL cable connectors stay attached, and makes it more suitable than RG174 or RG178 for the tight space of a small case or [...]

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    GPS Applications in IoT (Internet of Things)

    Key characteristics of GPS make it critical to a variety of mobile IoT solutions.Location of objects: GPS uses its proprietary constellation of military satellites to provide locating data for objects with a high degree of accuracy. This is done by a process called trilateration, which involves the target object or device communicating wirelessly with at [...]

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    RG58 Compared to LMR-200 & LMR-100 Coax: Shielding & Signal Loss

    ATTENUATION dB/ft. Frequency (MHZ) RG58 LMR-200 100 0.048 0.038 200 0.073 0.048 400 0.114 0.068 500 0.125 0.070 900 0.195 0.228 1000 0.213 0.119 1500 0.245 0.129 2400 0.354 0.169 RG58, LMR-100 and LMR-200 all have the following characteristics in common: 50 Ohm impedance A weather-resilient polyethylene (PE) dielectric PVC outer jacket Structural comparison of RG58 and LMR-100 (aside from what is mentioned above): LMR-100 is a 50 Ohm coaxial cable which shares structural and material similarities with RG58, but has an overall lower diameter of 2.79mm (0.110 [...]

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    RG174 compared to LMR-100 Coax : Shielding and Signal Loss

    RG174 and LMR100 Both are compatible with WiFi, Cellular, and most IoT wireless applications. LMR-100 is double-shielded and suitable for outdoor as well as indoor use.  RG174 has a single shield and is not suitable for long-term outdoor use. ATTENUATION Signal Loss: dB/ft. Signal Loss: dB/ft. Frequency (MHZ) RG174 LMR-100 100 0.088 0.038 200 0.140 0.100 400 0.220 0.146 500 0.159 900 0.300 0.228 1000 0.320 1500 0.301 2400 0.750 0.390 RG174 is a small, flexible, coax for antenna cables, with an American Wire [...]

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    Maximum Input Power Rating of Antennas

    Maximum Input Power is defined as: The maximum amount of power (voltage given in Watts) that is able to be transmitted to a single antenna without damage to the antenna port from overloading.Maximum Input Power is a key parameter commonly seen on antenna specifications and datasheets. It may be termed ‘power handling’ or designated as [...]

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    U.FL Cables Coax Types Compared: 1.13mm, 1.32mm, 1.37mm, RG174, RG178

    1.13mm coaxial cable is the most commonly-used coax for U.FL cables - especially short cables.  1.13 is the only coax that can be used with MHF4 cables. When connecting U.FL connector to a jack on a miniPCI card or board, sometimes the tight space requires the use of 1.13mm cable, because it is very thin and [...]

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    LMR-200 cable specifications / characteristics

    LMR-200 "Low loss cable" differs from RG58 and other coax standards by double shielding and less attenuation (signal loss in the cable) than the standard cables (e.g. RG58).  LMR-200 is equivalent or better quality compared to LMR-200 (generally better because LMR-200 is double-shielded).Rated for outdoor use and are also suitable for indoor use. very flexible/easily bendable coaxThe [...]

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    Double Shielding of Antenna Cables for Low Signal Loss

    Interference and Cable Shielding Shielding protects against both leakage and absorption of stray radiation of electrical noise by cables.Electrical "signal noise" interferes with the operation of antennas and antenna cables. Cables carrying high frequency charge naturally pose the risk of EMI transfer - both from shedding interference as well as accepting it. While insulation protects antenna cables from physical [...]

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    LMR-100 Coax for Antenna Cables: Shielding & Structure

    LMR-100 is a low loss, double-shielded coaxial cable type that is Data Alliance's standard for short versions of antenna cables with all of the following connector types:  RP-SMA, SMA, N-type connector, RP-TNC, MMCX, 50 Ohm BNC connectors, and FME. LMR 100's range of frequency band compatibility (from 0 to 18GHz) and 50 Ohms impedance matching, makes it suitable and compliant for all the following applications:All WiFi [...]

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    Antennas by connector type Frequency Bands of WiFi, Bluetooth, 5G, 4G, 3G, LTE, GSM, ISM, CDMA

    RP-SMA cables and adapters SMA antenna cables and adapters N-type cables and adapters U.FL cables MHF4 Cables MMCX cables
    Dimensions / Measurements of RP-SMA connectors Signal-loss (attenuation) in LMR-100 and LMR-200 cables RP-SMA antenna BNC cables RP-TNC cables and adapters Roof Mounts for Antennas
    LTE Antennas, GSM Antennas, 4G Antennas Through-hole antenna mounts Adhesive Mount Antennas Tripod Antenna Mounts Top Tips for Long Range WiFi