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    4G & 3G Standards: LTE, GSM CDMA, ISM, WCDMA, HSPA

    LTE (4G), GSM (3G & 2G), CDMA (3G & 2G), and ISM. The fundamental differences between these four modern technologies is the way they transmit and receive information.

    LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a 4G communication standard designed to be 10x faster than standard 3G. the technology provides IP-Based communication of voice and multimedia and streaming at between 100 Mbit per sec and 1 Gbit per second. LTE has an algorithm that is able to send large chunks of data via IP. This approach streamlines the traffic and reduces latency.

    GSM is an abbreviation for Global System for Mobile Communication. GSM is a digital cellular technology used to transmit data and voice communication at a frequency range of 850MHz to 1900MHz. GSM technology uses a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technique to transmit data. The GSM system converts the data into a digital signal and sends it through two different time stamped channels at a rate between 64 kbps and 120 kbps.

    CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access. CDMA uses a multiple access mode of communication. This is where several transmissions are made over the same channel simultaneously. Using a speed spectrum, each transmission is assigned a unique code that corresponds to the source and destination of the signal.

    ISM: industrial, scientific and medical radio bands reserved for medical, scientific and industrial use and not intended for telecommunication. Originally this band of radio frequencies was intended for use in industrial, scientific and medical ISM machines that operate at this range in order not to interfere with the wider.


    If Antenna frequency band exceeds needed range: Use Filter on system board to reduce excess band

    Example: You need only 860-960 MHz GSM band but the antenna covers 800-960MHz: One customer told us that using an antenna that includes 824-960 band allows too much interference, that comes from the low end of that band 824-860MHz.Our recommended solution is to add a filter in your system board (or AP [...]

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    LoRa: Long Range Wireless for Internet of Things (IOT): Frequency Bands Etc.

    LoRa is a wireless technology with incredibly low power usage, long range and secure data transmission for IoT and M2M applications. It is made on the chirp spread spectrum modulation technology which makes it efficient for long-range communication.   LoRa is short for long-range. LoRa Frequency BandsLoRa uses unlicensed frequency bands that are to be found worldwide. [...]

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    ZigBee & XBee Radio for Internet of Things (IOT)

    Zigbee is a low-cost wireless technology used for short-range, low-power radio communication. ZigBee devices are almost exclusively limited to low bandwidth (1MHz) personal area networks.Most commercial ZigBee devices operate at 2.4GHz, although some devices run on other ISM bands such as 900MHz and 868 MHz frequency bands. ZigBee has a data transmission rate of 250 [...]

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    ISM Band of Frequencies and Allocation

    ISM means Industrial, Scientific and Medical frequency band. This is a band of radio and microwave frequencies clustered around 2.4GHz, reserved and designated for industrial, scientific and medical equipment that use RF. Industrial equipment like MRI machines, testing equipment, and some radio telescopes use this ISM band of frequencies. Smaller consumer devices such as microwave [...]

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    dBm to Watt Conversion Table

    Upgrading your antenna, even just a small increment in dBm, makes a HUGE impact on the range of your device: dBm 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Watts 1.0 mW 1.3 mW 1.6 mW 2.0 mW 2.5 mW 3.2 mW 4.0 mW 5.0 mW 6.0 mW 8.0 mW 10.0 mW 13.0 mW 16.0 mW 20.0 mW 25.0 mW 32.0 mW dBm 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Watts 40.0 mW 50.0 mW 63.0 mW 79.0 mW 100.0 mW 126.0 mW 158.0 mW 200.0 mW 250.0 mW 316.0 mW 398.0 mW 500.0 mW 630.0 mW 800.0 mW 1.0 W 1.3 W dBm 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Watts 1.6 W 2.0 W 2.5 W 3.2 [...]

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    Legal & Illegal Frequencies & Channels In the United States

    LEGAL & ILLEGAL FREQUENCIES IN THE BAND 4.9GHz to 5.825 (United States only) Channel Frequency United States (MHz) 40/20 MHz 183 4915 ILLEGAL 184 4920 ILLEGAL 185 4925 ILLEGAL 187 4935 ILLEGAL 188 4940 ILLEGAL 189 4945 ILLEGAL 192 4960 ILLEGAL 196 4980 ILLEGAL 7 5035 ILLEGAL 8 5040 ILLEGAL 9 5045 ILLEGAL 11 5055 ILLEGAL 12 5060 ILLEGAL 16 5080 ILLEGAL 34 5170 ILLEGAL 36 5180 LEGAL 38 5190 ILLEGAL 40 5200 LEGAL 42 5210 ILLEGAL 44 5220 LEGAL 46 5230 ILLEGAL 48 5240 LEGAL 52 5260 LEGAL 56 5280 LEGAL 60 5300 LEGAL 64 5320 LEGAL 100 5500 LEGAL 104 5520 LEGAL 108 5540 LEGAL 112 LEGAL 116 5580 LEGAL 120 5600 ILLEGAL 124 5620 ILLEGAL 128 5640 ILLEGAL 132 5660 ILLEGAL 136 5680 LEGAL 140 5700 LEGAL 149 5745 LEGAL 153 5765 LEGAL 157 5785 LEGAL 161 5805 LEGAL 165 5825 LEGAL 2.4GHz (802.11n/g/b) is legal in all countries, but note the following: Channels 1-12 are legal in the United States Channels 13-14 are illegal to use in the United States 3.65ghz works on a registration system  The application fee for [...]

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    Definitions: Wireless & WiFi Terms

    Access Point (Wireless Access Point): Often referred to as a "wireless router:" Stationary radio station that has a connection to the Internet. Other names for the WIFI Access Point are: Access Point, AP, or Base Station. There are many different types of Access Point. At the high end of the range are commercial grade installations [...]

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    LMR-400 Coax Specifications / Characteristics: Lowest Signal Loss in Its Class

    Structure: LMR-400 is a 50-ohm coaxial cable that was originally made to replace lower quality coax cables such as the RG-8. The 400 represents the cable diameter. The LMR-400 actually has a diameter of 0.405 or 10.29 mm though it is classified as a 400, similar to most coaxial cables in its class such as [...]

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    CLF-100 Coax Specifications / Characteristics. Comparison to LMR-100

    CLF-100 and LMR-100 have the same structure and shieldingCLF-100 "Low loss cable" differs from RG174 and other coax standards by double shielding and the resulting less attenuation (signal loss in the cable) than RG174 and RG178.  CLF-100 is equivalent or better quality compared to LMR-100. Applications: Suitable for all frequency bands between 0 and 18GHz: [...]

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    Signal Loss in Antenna Cables.  LMR-100, LMR-200, LMR-400 Gender of Antenna Cable Connectors is Counter-Intuitive

    RP-SMA cables and adapters SMA antenna cables and adapters N-type cables and adapters U.FL cables MHF4 Cables MMCX cables
    Dimensions / Measurements of RP-SMA connectors Through-hole antenna mounts Roof Mounts for Antennas Tripod Antenna Mounts Adhesive Mount Antennas
    Top Tips for Long Range WiFi RP-TNC cables and adapters Signal-loss (attenuation) in LMR-100 and LMR-200 cables RP-SMA antenna Signal-loss (attenuation) in LMR-100 and LMR-200 cables BNC cables